9 Bugs And Insects That Love Eating Geraniums

Bugs and insects that eat geraniums

Geraniums can be perennial or annual flowers, and both types are beautiful additions to the garden. They can be fragrant, have clusters of flowers, or repel mosquitoes. Even with the ability to repel mosquitoes, some insects still love to eat them.

Geranium sawflies, budworms, aphids, whiteflies, and Japanese beetles are some of the bugs and insects that will eat your geraniums. With a few preventative and active measures you can repel these bugs so they don’t make a meal of your flowers.

A few of these bugs and insects will only eat geraniums as a last resort, but geranium budworms and geranium sawflies will actively seek these flowers out. By following the steps below, you can keep your geraniums insect free.

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1. Are Geranium Budworms Eating Your Geraniums?

The nocturnal owlet moth will visit your geraniums during the dark and lay its tiny eggs on the bottoms of the leaves. 

If you inspect the leaves very carefully, and for those with bad eyes (like me) use a magnifying glass. You can then remove the eggs or snip the leaves off and dispose of them.

If you don’t have the time to inspect all your flowers for minute moth eggs then you’ll see the damage the budworm caterpillars cause. When the eggs hatch, the caterpillars will bore into the buds of your geraniums.

While in the buds, they will devour the entire flower, then move on to another. One thing about these caterpillars is they will turn the color of the flowers they are eating. If you have red geraniums, then they will turn a shade of red. These caterpillars are very small, and at full size, they are only about an inch and a half long.

If you see flowers that either do not open up or when they do, they look ragged and chewed you have these budworms. You can also see the small, circular holes they chew into the buds where they eat and hide away.

How To Get Rid Of Geranium Budworms

Make sure to inspect your geraniums regularly during the summer. Drop the caterpillars into soapy water or cut the affected flowers off. 

Repot plants in fresh soil before bringing them inside to get rid of overwintering pupae, and dispose of the old soil that has the budworms.

Once the sun starts to go down these worms and moths become more active, and you might see them moving around. If you see tiny, brown moths or striped, slightly hairy caterpillars on your geraniums, you should act quickly to get rid of them.

One option is, of course, to remove them by hand. Pick off the worms and drop them into your trusty soap and water container. You could also snip off the buds that have tiny holes to get rid of them before they pupate.

Once these caterpillars have finished eating and are ready to hibernate for the winter, they drop off, dig into the ground and pupate through the winter. Once the ground warms back up, they emerge as moths and continue the cycle.

Repot Your Geraniums

When you notice you’ve had a problem with geranium budworms, one of the best things you can do is to repot the flowers in new soil.

This will prevent the pupae from emerging back onto your geraniums next year. Sterilizing the soil will get rid of any pupae in the ground.

You can also purchase new soil to plant them in if they are the perennial type. Annuals will shrivel up after the first frost, though some annuals are good at reseeding themselves. In which case, if you sterilize the soil, you’ll probably succeed in cooking the seeds too.

Treat Caterpillars With Bacillus Thuringiensis

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a naturally occurring bacteria that resides in the soil and affects caterpillars. Bt usually comes in powder form and is safe to sprinkle on flowers to get rid of caterpillar pests.

For the geranium budworm, Bt is mildly effective because they have to ingest it for it to get rid of them. While these pests are holed up in the buds, the power typically won’t affect them.

Spinosad May Be Another Option

Spinosad is another organic pesticide that works when the budworms either ingest it or come in contact with it. This may be a better option for budworms that are not coming out of the flower buds.

One caution about spinosad is it will harm honeybees, so if these pollinators have been visiting your geraniums, wait until dusk to spray your plants. 

Bees won’t come in contact with the liquid, and the budworms become active at night so it has a better chance of getting rid of the bad bugs.

Best Ways To Prevent And Repel Budworms

Unfortunately, there are only a few ways to prevent geranium budworms from coming back. Spraying your geraniums with insecticidal soap or neem oil once or twice a week will prevent the budworms.

The other method for preventing these bugs is to inspect the bottoms of the leaves for eggs and remove any caterpillars you see.

Being proactive is the best way to prevent budworms from becoming a pest. When you see holes in the buds, cut them off and dispose of them, but there isn’t much else to prevent these bugs from getting to your geraniums.

2. Do You Have Geranium Sawflies On Your Flowers?

Sawflies Eating Plant

Geranium sawflies only go after hardy geraniums, and it’s the caterpillar-like grubs that do the damage to the plants. Adults only feed on nectar and pollen and pose no risk to your plants. The adult sawfly is considered a beneficial pollinator; we’ll get into that later.

Sawflies are host-plant specific. This means they will only feed on one type of plant. The geranium sawfly only feeds on geraniums and will not move to other plants.

Adult geranium sawflies are tiny flying insects that tend to resemble flies, except these insects are part of the wasp family.

They are named sawflies because they use an organ that resembles a saw to lay eggs inside the plant, and they can’t sting people. It’s good they only go after flowers!

If you see tiny, black flies that have two pairs of wings flying around your geraniums, be on the lookout later for the grubs that will eat holes through the leaves.

The little worms are typically grey, green, or a mixture of this color, with hard, dark brown heads. They may be hard to spot because they will drop to the ground when they feel threatened.

Here they can blend into the ground and become hard to spot. Once the danger has passed, they climb back up and continue their hole-making, leaf-munching. 

How To Deal With Geranium Sawflies

So, these insects are considered somewhat beneficial because the adults are frequent pollinators. When you only have a few of these larvae on your geraniums, it’s often better to leave them be.

Alone, or in small numbers the sawfly grubs don’t do a lot of damage to your geraniums. They will make small holes in the leaves, which can be unsightly. If the damage is bad enough you can prune away the “holey” leaves.

On the other hand, when you have a large infestation of geranium sawflies, they can reduce the vigor of your geraniums and cause defoliation to your flowers. When this happens you may want to attempt a few control methods.

Pick Them Off

For those that don’t mind grabbing bugs with their own hands, picking the grubs off and disposing of them is an effective way to control sawfly grubs.

These little wrigglers can feel quite disconcerting between your fingers but they can’t harm you, still, they can feel creepy.

While you are looking for them, be sure to check the ground because they will drop to the ground to escape the soapy water torture.

Introduce Avial Predators

Birds love grubs and caterpillars, so if they see the little sawfly grubs on your geraniums, they will happily peck them off. Help to make your property more inviting to these grub decimators.

You can hang bird feeders near your geraniums, or if they are in hanging pots, hang the flowers near the feeders. The birds will come for the seeds and then stick around for the grub main course.

Planting small trees and shrubs a few feet away from feeders helps to attract birds as well. Some species like to snatch a seed from the feeder, then retreat to the safety of the bush to eat. They will often fly back and forth several times, and of course, if they see the bugs on your flowers, they will go to check them out and eat them.

Neem Oil

For a more direct, yet hands-off approach, spray the grubs with neem oil. If birds are taking too long, and the thought of handling anything with more than four legs sends chills down your spine, just give them a quick spray of neem oil.

This product is organic and works especially well on soft-bodied insects and bugs. It’s a systematic product that will not affect pollinators like bees, or butterflies, and will not harm birds. Just for precaution though, don’t spray these directly.

3. Are Four-Lined Plant Bugs Eating Your Geraniums?

Four-Lined Bug On Leaf

These striped speedsters may only be a blur as they race away from your gigantic presence. They are so named because of the black and bright yellow stripes running down their backs. The four-lined plant bugs are quick runners that will zip away, or drop to the ground to escape predators.

Because of their speed, you may never see the bugs themselves, but you can spot the damage they cause to your geraniums.

These insects stick a straw-like projectile into the leaves of your plants and “drink” the chlorophyll, leaving behind round, brown, dried-out spots on the leaves.

The nymphs are small, red, and just as fast, but the adults do the majority of the damage to your plants. Most times the damage is aesthetic and nothing needs to be done to keep this pest in check, but when there are too many of them, you may want to get rid of the four-lined plant bug.

Only One Generation Per Year

The four-lined plant bug hatches in early spring, they feed on the plants, but their damage is minimal as they grow. The adults are the main culprits of the brown, unsightly spots on the foliage.

The adults will only feed for a month before they mate and kick the bucket. By July these insects have done about all the damage they are going to do. When the adults lay their eggs, they fade away and the eggs hang out until next spring when they hatch.

There is only one generation of four-lined plant bugs in a year. So, if the damage isn’t destroying your plants, just snip off the damaged leaves, and the plants will grow more foliage to replace what was removed.

By the end of July, you won’t have to worry about these insects again until next year.

How To Manage A Large Infestation Of Four-Lined Plant Bugs

Let’s say you’re one of the unlucky gardeners who have an unprecedented infestation of these insects and they are sucking your geraniums dry. What can you do now to get rid of these pests?

They are very quick bugs. The racing stripes they are born with must give them extra speed because they are nearly impossible to catch. With that said, the best way to get rid of them is to spray them with neem oil or another type of horticultural oil.

There isn’t much else that affects these bugs, so if you can’t live with the damage, or you have an unchecked population of these quick insects, give them a spritz or two of horticultural oil.

4. Are Cabbage Loopers Eating Your Geraniums?

Large Cabbage Looper

Cabbage loopers or cabbage worms can be used to identify many small, green caterpillars that like to eat…you guessed it, cabbages, as well as many other plants, including geraniums.

True cabbage loopers are a type of inchworm that will eat the foliage off many common garden plants.

They tend to stick around near the bottom few leaves on the plants. Cabbage loopers will devour a lot of leaves, and can cause significant damage to the plants if they are left unchecked. The leaves will have ragged edges along the sides, on the lower part of the plant.

Ways To Get Rid Of And Repel Cabbage Loopers

Like the above methods of getting rid of caterpillar pests on your geraniums, the same methods will apply here. When you see the green caterpillars “inching” along on your geranium’s leaves or you see them feeding on the foliage, pluck them off and give them a soapy bath.

Bt works for nearly all caterpillars. Sprinkle the leaves of your geraniums with Bt and soon they will no longer bother your geraniums.

Spraying them with neem oil will also rid your geraniums of these hungry, hungry caterpillars.

Plant Some Herbs Near Your Geraniums

Strong-smelling herbs and flowers are often enough to keep cabbage loopers, and the adult, nocturnal moths away. The adult moths don’t damage the plants, but they lay the eggs that deliver the leaf-munching caterpillars to your flowers.

Some herbs and flowers you can plant near your geraniums to keep cabbage loopers away include:

  • Dill
  • Oregano
  • Thyme
  • Garlic
  • Onions
  • Marigolds

These plants will not only help prevent many pest insects like the cabbage looper, but many attract beneficial predatory bugs, some of which can feed on the pest insects.

5. Do You Have Aphids On Your Geraniums?

Aphids are tiny, pear-shaped bugs that feed on the juices of most plants. They multiply very quickly and can spread from one plant to others in one season.

They secrete honeydew which attracts ants because they feed on the sticky, sweet substance, and then offer protection to the aphids.

Heavy aphid infestations will dry out plants, leaving behind only brown, shriveled remnants of what used to be. They will eat, multiply, eat some more, and move on to more plants if there is nothing to stop them.

The first signs of aphids are shriveled, dried-out edges on the leaves, a sticky substance on the plant, and you’ll be able to see the tiny, slow-moving insects on the undersides of the foliage.

Treating Aphids On Your Geraniums

The best way to keep aphids in check is to use their natural, sworn enemies. Ladybugs, lacewing larvae, and other predatory insects. These aphid-eating bugs help to naturally keep aphid populations in check.

Go With Natural Predators

You can purchase Nature’s Good Guys 3000 Live Ladybugs here. The voracious insects will devour many soft-bodied pest insects that try and make a meal of your garden and flowers.

NaturesGoodGuys – Green Lacewing Eggs on Hanging Card are another option for controlling aphids, scale, and whiteflies. Simply hang the card on the plant that is infested with aphids and let the lacewings hatch and get to work eating the pests.

The nymphs of these insects are the true unsung heroes of aphid decimation as their only goal is to eat. 

Adult ladybugs will eat aphids, but they tend to eat their fill, then fly away. Lacewing adults live to eat pollen and nectar, lay eggs, then take a permanent nap, so the nymphs of these insects do most of the work.

To attract these predatory insects naturally to your garden, plant flowers, and herbs the adults are attracted to. Then they will feel more welcomed in your garden and provide you with the aphid munching babies. Plants that attract ladybugs and aphids include:

  • Dill
  • Yarrow
  • Carpet bugleweed
  • Queen Ann’s lace
  • Butterfly weed
  • Alyssum
  • Coreopsis
  • Coriander
  • Fennel

Plant a few of these herbs and flowers around your garden to keep an army of aphid fighters around full-time.

Use The Trusty Garden Hose

Spraying your plants with a jet of water from your garden hose is another way to knock these sap-sucking insects off. Just be sure to get the undersides of the leaves.

Aphids—when they are wingless—are slow-moving insects that have trouble traveling long distances. So when they are knocked off with a hose, they have a hard time getting back. This makes them easy targets for other insects like ground beetles to grab an easy meal.

Without nearby plants, aphids may choose to migrate or reproduce even more. Read about it in our article on What Happens To Aphids When They Don’t Have Plants.

Give Them A Spritz Of Soapy Water

Take an empty spray bottle, fill it up with tap water, then add a few drops of dish soap and spray the aphids. Make sure the soap is bleach-free and doesn’t have any other additives that can harm your plants.

If you have pure castile soap laying around, that would be a very plant-safe, but aphid-dangerous option.

The soapy water clings to the aphids, and surrounds them, causing the insects to asphyxiate, and/or dehydrate. Horticultural oils work very efficiently as well.

Here Are A Few Ways To Prevent Aphids

Aphids don’t seem to care for plants from the alyssum family and will tend to steer clear of them. These plants include chives, garlic, leeks, and onions. Plant these around your geraniums to help to prevent aphids in the first place.

You can also plant strong-smelling herbs like oregano, and basil to repel aphids. Then you can use these herbs in your recipes for a win-win!

Preventative sprays with neem oil keep aphids away. Neem oil works very effectively against aphids, and spraying your plants once or twice a week will keep them away.

6. Do You Have Japanese Beetles On Your Geraniums?

Japanese Beetle On Flower

Japanese beetles have been expanding across the United States, and they seem to be indeterminate plant eaters. These bronze-colored beetles have a strange affinity for geraniums. So much so that these flowers are often used as a Japanese beetle trap plant.

A trap plant is a plant you grow to attract bugs and insects away from other plants such as your prized hibiscus flowers, tomatoes, or roses.

The thing about Japanese beetles and geraniums is when they eat these flowers, the insects end up getting flower-drunk and fall to the ground. Geraniums leave the Japanese beetles paralyzed for a while.

While the beetles are laying on the ground, legs up, regretting their lives, invite your chickens over to gobble them up.

Don’t have chickens? Get out the wet/dry vac, or practice your la Cucaracha dance on those buggers and stomp them out of existence.

Treating Japanese Beetles On Your Geraniums

Fortunately, there isn’t much you need to do when Japanese beetles start dining on your geraniums.

If the infestation is heavy, you can pluck them off and dunk them into some soap-laden water. Otherwise, they will become so lethargic that you can deal with them however you wish.

If you don’t want to watch them fall to their doom while eating your geraniums, you can resort to spraying them with horticultural oil. It won’t dispose of them immediately, but it will finish them off after a few minutes.

To repel these flying pests, the best way is to prevent them from being able to get to your plants. Japanese beetles are only around during the summer months. If you are hit with a giant swarm of them, using garden netting could protect your flowers from this flying scourge.

Agfabric 10’x20′ Bug Net, Garden Netting is a great choice in preventing flying insects from getting to your plants. Simply drape this over your flowers, but keep it loose enough to give them room to grow, and keep Japanese beetles off your geraniums. 

7. Are Snails And Slugs Eating Your Geraniums?

These slimy gastropods don’t actively seek geraniums as food, but they will eat them if the pickings are slim. While the damage they cause often looks very similar to caterpillar and grub damage, the biggest tell that you have slugs or snails will be the slime trails.

When you see tiny, iridescent highways crisscrossing across the ground or your flowers, you know you have one or both of these garden destroyers. You will often see them in larger numbers when the ground is wet, as they need a lot of humidity to survive.

How To Treat Slugs And Snails On Geraniums

As kids, many of us knew exactly how to get rid of slugs. Whenever we saw one we would run inside, grab the table salt and dump it all over the unlucky slug.

If our friends were around it was even better, because we would watch and marvel as the slug slowly morphed into a bubbling pile of slime.

While that is still an option for dealing with these slimy creatures, the salt can be detrimental to the plants as well. Salt may be the most dramatic way to handle snails and slugs, but other ways won’t harm your plants.

The Tried And True Pick Them Off Method

That’s right, you know what to do. Get your gloves, and your bucket of soapy water, and get to plucking the snails off. You will probably have to wait until dark because that’s when most of them come out, but it’s an effective approach.

For snails and slugs, the other best way to treat them is to prevent them in the first place.

Tips On Preventing Slugs And Snails

Copper is a wonderful preventative against gastropods. You can use copper tape, copper rings, wire, pipe, or whatever you have that’s made of copper to keep slugs away. When they touch the metal, they get an electrifying jolt and are unable to pass the barrier.

When the copper becomes tarnished you may need to replace it, or sand the corrosion off for it to remain effective.

Use Crushed Eggshells

Another barrier method to prevent snails and slugs is to use your leftover eggshells.

Simply crush them up into tiny shards, or pulse them in your food processor to break them into small pieces. Then lay them out in a line across wherever you don’t want the soft-bodied bugs to pass.

The sharp edges of the eggshells will cut the gastropods like broken glass so they won’t cross over. Just replace the shells as they degrade or get scattered.

Eggshells are good for the garden as they return calcium to the ground. Most plants benefit from calcium, and beneficial night-crawlers and other worms often eat eggshells, so they are good for your plants in more ways than one.

In addition to this methods, strong scents may have a repellent effect on slugs and snails. Check this out in our piece on the Scents That Snails Hate and Scents That Slugs Hate!

8. What To Do When Whiteflies Invade Your Geraniums

Large Group of Whiteflies

Whiteflies are similar to aphids because they try to suck the fluids from your plants and in doing so they excrete honeydew.

This attracts ants and can cause fungal issues on your plants. Whiteflies are different in the way they look as they tend to be slightly larger (about 1/12 of an inch long), have white wings, and look triangular.

You may notice small, white, flying insects flitting about your flowers, or see them congregating on the undersides of the leaves.

Whiteflies damage your plants the same way aphids do. You’ll see shriveled, weakened plants because these pests drain all the fluids from the plants.

Whitefly Treatment On Geraniums

If you notice these white-winged pests on your geraniums, the treatment for them is the same as with aphids. There is one trick that works well for whiteflies that maybe isn’t the greatest for aphids though.

You can vacuum off the whiteflies with a medium to low-powered vacuum. It only takes a light suction to pull these bugs off the leaves, and sometimes you’ll get the eggs too. You don’t want to use a high-powered vacuum, because that would damage the plant.

When vacuuming these pests off, you’ll have to return every few days to get the newly hatched nymphs and the ones who escaped capture last time.

Going out early in the morning is the best time because whiteflies are sluggish before the sun comes up.

Plants That Repel Whiteflies

If you’ve had a problem with whiteflies before on other plants, or they keep coming back year after year there are things you can do to deter them. Strongly-scented plants tend to deter most whiteflies and many other pests.

By planting such herbs and flowers as marigolds, lavender, peppermint, garlic, or basil, you can keep most of these pests at bay. Many bugs hate the scent of these plants and won’t go near them. Also, some of these plants help to attract beneficial predatory insects.

Attract Some Hummingbirds To Your Garden

Did you know that hummingbirds don’t only subsist off nectar, they eat small insects too? That was news to me! Yes, hummingbirds are insect eaters and will often pick small insects off plants that have nectar-rich flowers.

Hummingbirds have been observed eating aphids, whiteflies, gnats, mosquitoes, and more small, easy-to-swallow insects. They have even been known to pluck bugs off of spiderwebs.

If you’re having a problem with aphids, mealybugs, weevils, or whiteflies, set up a few hummingbird feeders near your geraniums.

The quick little birds will be attracted to the nectar but could stick around and help pick off the tiny insects for some added protein.

9. Do You Have Scale On Your Geraniums?

Scale sounds like some kind of fishy problem, but they are insects that live to suck the juices from your plants. The insects are very slow-moving bugs that at first look like fuzzy, white, fungal spots on your plants, but they are insects.

They look like minuscule muppet cast-offs until they metamorphose into a hard shell and fuse their bodies to the plant.

Once the insects permanently attach to the plant, they look like hard warts on your plant’s leaves. At this time, they are difficult to remove without removing the affected leaves.

Large-scale, scale infestations will not only make your plants appear like they’re dying, but they can weaken the plant and open them up for more invaders and problems. When you see fuzzy spots on your geraniums, act fast before they go through the change.

How To Handle Scale On Your Geraniums

Scale insects quickly create a hard shell over themselves when they find a host plant. Once they have this armored plating covering them, they are difficult to remove. Most pesticides won’t penetrate the covering, so they become ineffective.

Watch for the “crawlers” as they are called before becoming attached to the plant. These usually appear in spring. While they are in this stage, you can blast them off with a jet of water, spray them with horticultural oil, or pick them off with your hands.

You can also use a soft, small, brush dipped in soapy water or isopropyl alcohol to get rid of the crawlers.

A toothbrush or even a cotton swab works great for small infestations. Just test your plant first, especially if using alcohol, sometimes it can damage the plant.

When Scale Has Hardened

Once these bugs have settled in and covered themselves in the impenetrable hard coating, the best way to get rid of them is to remove the affected parts of the plant.

Prune off any leaves, stems, or flowers that have scale bugs attached to them. Dispose of the affected plant parts in the trash, or burn them if burning is allowed in your area.

You don’t want to compost these plant parts, as the scale can survive. Then wherever you compost, you could potentially be introducing more scale insects to these new areas.

How To Keep Scale In Check

One of the best ways to keep these insects in check and reduce their numbers is to invite predatory insects. Ladybugs, parasitic wasps, and soldier beetles feed on the soft-bodied scale, so invite these bugs to your garden.

Also, when purchasing plants from nurseries or other places, scrutinize the plants. Many times you can prevent insects and other problems before you even bring them home.

Use These Methods On All Geranium Pests

Fancy Geranium With Purple Flowers

The following products and methods will help to either prevent, get rid of, or repel nearly all the above pests, that’s why it’s included here.

  • Healthy plants: A strong, well-watered, and fed plant is the best defense against all pests. While this won’t prevent 100% of all problems, a strong plant is more likely to survive an insect infestation.
  • Diatomaceous earth: Diatomaceous earth is non-toxic (though follow instructions when using it), organic, and will quickly get rid of insects, especially soft-bodied caterpillars, slugs, aphids, and scale.

You can even use it as a slug, and crawling insect deterrent. Leave a mounded line around the plants you want to protect. Any insects that crawl across it will become lacerated with tiny cuts that dry them out before they can damage your plants.

  • Natural predators: Invite nature’s way of keeping insects in check. Make your property inviting to birds, toads and frogs, lizards, and other predatory insects. Put out birdbaths, feeders, and toad houses, and make rocky areas for lizards.

All of these animals help to rid your garden of insect pests by eating them before they can cause significant damage. They won’t get rid of everything, but you’ll spend less time fighting insects with a healthy predatory population around.

  • Yellow sticky traps: Placing these sticky traps around your geraniums will catch many insect pests before they get to your flowers. They can also be used as an early warning system.
  • Neem or other horticultural oils: These sprays can be used as preventatives or treatments. They won’t harm beneficial insects such as butterflies and bees but will get rid of the bad bugs.

As a preventative, just spray your plants a few times a week to keep insects away. Be sure to spray during the evening, the midday heat combined with the oils in the sprays can harm your plants.

Final Thoughts

Geraniums are a popular flowering plant that can be used as an insect repellant, but there are still insects that seek to feed on them. By employing natural methods and routine inspection of your geraniums you can keep them pest free and healthy.

Natural predators, diatomaceous earth, and horticultural oils can get rid of geranium pests.

These methods also keep from harming beneficial wildlife such as bees, birds, and other pollinators. So grow your geraniums and enjoy the benefits of these beautiful flowers without the hassle of pests.


Yanega, Gregor M., and Margaret A. Rubega. “Hummingbird jaw bends to aid insect capture.” Nature 428.6983 (2004): 615-615.

Elliston, Elizabeth Penn. “Hummingbirds.” Hand‐Rearing Birds (2020): 521-537.

Jaenson, Thomas GT, Samira Garboui, and Katinka Pålsson. “Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.” Journal of Medical Entomology 43.4 (2006): 731-736.

Goggin, Fiona L. “Plant–aphid interactions: molecular and ecological perspectives.” Current opinion in plant biology 10.4 (2007): 399-408.

Stadelbacher, E. A. “Geranium dissectum: an unreported host of the tobacco budworm and bollworm and its role in their seasonal and long term population dynamics in the delta of Mississippi.” Environmental Entomology 8.6 (1979): 1153-1156.

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